FALSE: Conspiracy theory that COVID-19 vaccines’ spike proteins are ‘cytotoxic’ debunked by experts

Coronavirus

This illustration, created at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), reveals ultrastructural morphology exhibited by coronaviruses. Note the spikes that adorn the outer surface of the virus, which impart the look of a corona surrounding the virion, when viewed electron microscopically. A novel coronavirus, named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness first detected in Wuhan, China in 2019. The illness caused by this virus has been named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

(KXAN) — Misinformation alert: A video that’s currently circulating social media claims the spike proteins contained in COVID-19 vaccines kill or damage your body’s cells — but medical experts say there’s no evidence to support the statement.

That video from a Canadian talk radio show purports to reveal that spike proteins in the vaccines break down cells, allowing the proteins bind and infect the vaccinated. Some such claims are even made by Dr. Robert Malone, the self-proclaimed “inventor of mRNA technology” (more on that later).

But recent fact-checks by experts, published by The Poynter Institute’s PolitiFact, Reuters, and the Associated Press dismantle the video’s claims.

The video interview relies heavily on claims made by Canadian viral immunologist Dr. Byram Bridle, who claimed COVID-19 vaccines produce “toxins” that can travel to the brain. In his often-cited quote, Bridle said, “We made a big mistake. We didn’t realize it until now, we thought the spike protein was a great target antigen.” But countless researchers dispute this.

The biggest strike against the claim is simple: None of the vaccines currently authorized in the U.S. (Pfizer, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson) even contain live COVID-19 or its spike proteins. Instead, the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines use messenger RNA (mRNA) to tell the body how to attack spike proteins by creating small amounts afterward. Medical researchers and doctors say these amounts are nearly insignificant and not unlike other existing vaccines.

Another of Bridle’s claims is that the vaccines — and the proteins experts agree they don’t have — can travel from the shoulder and to other areas of the body, causing damage.

Dr. Adam Ratner, pediatric infectious disease specialist at NYU Langone Health, explained to AP: “What was said in the radio show was completely inaccurate… the amounts [of spike proteins] that are made after the mRNA is injected are very small and it almost exclusively stays locally. It is nowhere near the amount he was talking about.”

Additionally, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention explains: “Our immune systems recognize that the protein doesn’t belong there and begin building an immune response and making antibodies, like what happens in natural infection against COVID-19. At the end of the process, our bodies have learned how to protect against future infection.”

Viral anti-vaccine video

A Facebook search for “spike proteins” and “toxic” retrieved hundreds and hundreds of variations on the video’s claims, including others advancing the theory, claiming the spike proteins are a “bioweapon.” That video has over 51,000 views.

Several photos of a Nature Neuroscience study are widely shared on Facebook and other platforms feature a fake title of the study, “The S1 protein of SARS-CoV-2 crosses the blood–brain barrier in mice,” and instead is doctored to read, “Spike as Toxin.” The mice study from December 2020 is real, but found that proteins from the virusnot the vaccine — could enter the brain of mice injected with SARS-CoV-2.

The study’s lead author, Dr. William A. Banks, concluded that this could possibly add more context as to why COVID-19 patients have trouble breathing, saying that the virusnot the vaccine — likely enters respiratory centers in the brain. Banks also explained to the peer-reviewed Psychiatric Times that protein entry could also explain why some recovered COVID-19 patients experience brain fog.

A widely circulated screenshot of a December 2020 S1 protein study contains a false title and misleads readers of the study’s findings.

Based on recent data, researchers are increasingly understanding how COVID-19 infection affects the brain — though some more recent findings suggest it can be more difficult for the virus to access the brain than previously thought.

On YouTube, the debunked spike protein video currently has about 3.5 million views. Facebook has flagged several postings of the video and labeled it as “misinformation.” Meanwhile, postings parroting its claims proliferate. One such Facebook post reads:

“THE FDA WAS ALERTED MONTHS AGO THAT THE SPIKE PROTEIN IN THE COVID VACCINES ARE CYTOTOXIC. CYTOTOXIC: TOXIC TO CELLS. THE FDA DID NOTHING AND STILL ALLOW PEOPLE TO CONTINUE BEING INJECTED WITH A CYTOTOXIC SUBSTANCE. FACT CHECK THAT!!!”

This above claim is in reference to Malone saying he sent “manuscripts” to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration about spike protein threat. The FDA says it determined his claim didn’t have enough proof to back it up.

As for Malone, while he was certainly instrumental in mRNA tech development, research shows he did not exactly act alone in the research. In an August 12 article for The Atlantic, author Tom Bartlett lays out some less-known elements of Malone’s backstory, including allegations from fellow mRNA research icon Katalin Karikó that Malone threatened her via email after she received notoriety for her work in helping produce the COVID-19 vaccine.

Karikó asserts that Malone’s ownership of the title of “inventor” of mRNA tech is overinflated, saying “hundreds of scientists” contributed more to mRNA vaccines than he did. Over the years, and especially through the pandemic, he’s become increasingly polarizing among his peers, with many noting his seeming hunger for the spotlight, personal grievances, and/or sensationalist views.

Malone, who insists he is not antivaccinations, denies he meant his statements to Karikó as a threat. Associated Press reached out to Bridle but did not hear back.

Is your information real? Fighting bogus news

While conspiracy theories and false claims will continue to replicate across the internet, there are several actions readers can take to stop it.

Cornell University Library has an entire section of resources in its Fake News, Propaganda, and Disinformation: Learning to Critically Evaluate Media Sources, which offers a wealth of material to consider.

The university explains that one of the first items to check is the URL. Is it unusual? URLs ending with .com.co or l-o aren’t likely to be legitimate news sites. How “good” does the site look? Evaluate whether the website you’re looking at appears professional. Additionally, any real news article will list its sources.

How to Spot Fake News guidelines (Courtesy of Cornell University)
  • Read more than the headline — Sometimes headlines are sensational and don’t represent the whole story. Other times, complex stories are hard to distill in such a short amount of space
  • Do your own research — “Your own research” should include investigating a site’s trustworthiness and biases, identifying where the author’s information came from, finding out who the author is
  • Know before you share — Just because a family member, friend or someone you consider to be too smart to fall for fake news shares something doesn’t mean you can trust it
  • Look within — Do you have your own biases or preconceived notions about the topic? Ask yourself if you’re open to changing your opinion
  • Find expert opinions — While your mom, your spouse, or your best friend may give great advice, if they’re not an expert, get a second opinion!

Finally, you can easily verify stories by scouring the many trusted fact-checking websites, including PolitiFact, FactCheck.org, Snopes, and the Fact Check from Duke Reporter’s Lab.

Copyright 2021 Nexstar Media Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.

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